ABOUT US
Certified Personal Property Appraisers
Glens Falls, NY  518-793-8251  Albany, NY   518-436-8100 Delaware  302-351-3392   
thedudleys@dudleyanddudley.com
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Dudley & Dudley
In Albany, NY: 1971 Western Avenue, #195Albany, NY 12203
The Professional Standard
For Your  Protection & Security —  Hiring a board Certified Personal Property Appraiser offers true, risk-free protection and security for your legal and financial needs.    IRS, insurance, equitable distribution, estate planning and management, or brokerage and liquidation, in each case the cost of a rejected or inadequate appraisal can be devasting given today's fine art and antiques prices or your investment in your residential contents.   No Dudley & Dudley appraisal has been rejected in over 40 years of practice.   Insure against potential loss with an appraisal from Dudley & Dudley, Certified Personal Property Appraisers  and trained expert witnesses. Richard Dudley and Patricia Dudley are board Certified Appraisers of Fine Art, Antiques, Textiles including Historic Dress & High End Couture, Historical Documents and Books, including Estates and Estate Consulting  Because of their years of training, experience and depth of professional qualifications, Dudley & Dudley, Certified Personal Property Appraisers, are a one-stop, full service appraisal services firm.  Dudley & Dudley can handle the entire range of appraisal needs through their entire cycle.  Specializing In: Internal Revenue Service Appraisals • Estate Valuation • Non-Cash Charitable Donation • Gift Tax Equitable Distribution Appraisals • Divorce • Liquidation Insurance Appraisals • Individual, Estate, Corporate and Institutional Collections Appraisals • Damage and Loss • General Household • Fine Art Estate Planning & Consulting & Appraisal • On Staff CPA on request Consultation and Brokerage For: • Individuals • Corporations • Public and Private Institutions • Collections Management • Expert Testimony Expert Testimony Trained, Experienced, Expert Testimony for the Legal Profession
Shirt Factory Artist's Building Garden Level 19 Cooper Street Glens Falls, New York  12801   By Appointment Only
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Honors
Appraisers Association of America
Richard Dudley, A.A.A., U.S.P.A.P. Richard Dudley hs been an antiques dealer for decades,  an appraiser for 35 years and a Certified Appraiser since 1992. Together with Patricia, he wrote the Certification exam for American Furniture and Decorative Arts in 2009, which all appraisers wishing to be certified in this field have to take.   In 1996 Richard Dudley was one of the first to take and pass the special seminar on the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice as mandated by the Appraisal Standards Board of the Appraisal Foundation, receiving the Certificate of Successful Completion. He has taken them every five years, the last in 2011.  A.A., B.A.,  M.A., in American History. Member, Appraisers Association of America. Former Treasurer,  Variously past member Board of Directors and Executive Board,   Presently Chair Emeritus, Admissions  Committee,   Appraisers Association of America. New Appraiser Mentor, A.A.A. National  Convention, NYC. Selected by A.A.A.,  with Patricia Dudley, to grade exams of appraisers seeking Certification in American Furniture. 
Richard Dudley, A.A.A.
Patricia Dudley, A.A.A.
Patricia Dudley, A.A.A., U.S.P.A.P. B.A., History and Fine Art majorMaintains a current USPAP Certificate, 2008,  completed the required coursework and successfully passed the required examination.  She is a Certified Member of the Appraisers Association of America, Inc. for whom she has taught Theory and Methodology to appraisers seeking certification status. Formrely the Co-chair of the Appraisers Associations' Advisory Council and  Member of the Ethics Committee and Admissions Committee. She served as a former officer and member of the Executive Committee of the AAA, member of the Board of Directors for almost twenty years, Co-Chair of the Membership Committee and member of numerous other committees of the AAA.  She appeared weekly as an expert appraiser on the nationally televised program on the FX Network, Personal FX The Collectibles Show.  A dealer in period American Furniture,  Decorative Arts, in particular Textiles, for 35 years, she was formerly a Board and Executive Committee  Member, Secretary and one of the Membership Committee Chairs of the  Antiques Dealers Association of America, Inc. She studied insurance in a family owned business, formerly the prestigious Tucker and Turnbull Brokerage in White Plains, New York.
Bio
The Personal FX Show
Patricia Dudley, A.A.A., U.S.P.A.P. Fans will remember Patricia Dudley's weekly appeances as an expert appraiser on the nationally televised program on the FX Network, Personal FX The Collectibles Show.  Watch a video of Pat in action on our video page or read about her on Internet Movie Database:
IMDb.com
Professional Honors: • 2006   Three awards are given at each national Conference to those who have distinguished themselves in their service to the Appraisers Association of American and to the Appraisal Profession. One of these,  the  Regional Service Award, was given to each of the Dudleys, Patricia and Richard, for their service.  • 2002  At the 2002 National Conference both Patricia and Richard Dudley each received  a certificate “In Appreciation of Distinguished  Service  to the Appraiser's Association of America, Inc., the gratitude  of colleagues is officially expressed.”  This was accompanied by a letter from the Executive Director stating  “It is truly a significant  achievement.” • 1996  After serving two terms as Treasurer of the the Appraisers Association of America, Inc., Richard Dudley was given an award certificate at the National Conference in New York on November 16th, 1996 "In appreciation of Distinguished  Services. ”  It was at a Board of Directors meeting prior to that, that Louis Zara, A.A.A., former President and a former Treasurer of A.A.A., said for the record that Richard Dudley "was the best treasurer the A.A.A. had ever had." 
The Appraisers Association of America, Inc. is the largest and oldest association of personal property appraisers in the world. Personal property is all non-real estate and includes antiques, fine and applied art and household contents. The Association, based in New York City, conducts education and training programs for qualified professional members of the appraisal industry, including certification exams, the highest level of credentialization in the appraisal profession. The AAA is a member of the Appraisal Foundation which has been authorized by the United States Congress as the source of appraisal standards and appraiser qualifications.
How Does An Appraisal By A Certified Appraiser Legally Protect Me? Certification is now officially recognized by the Internal Revenue Service, which demands "Qualified Appraisers." According to the I.R.S.: "Appraisal designation.  An appraiser will be treated as having earned an appraisal designation from a recognized professional appraiser organization within the meaning of section 170(f)(11)(e)(ii)(1) of the Pension Protection Act, 8/2006." Beware of what are called "lay appraisers."  If a person claiming to be an appraiser does not have credentials from a known and established professional appraiser organization, they will not be recognized as qualified to prepare and submit appraisals.   If an appraisal is legally challenged, the first issue brought up in court or in a hearing will be the appraiser's qualifications.   If they do not have professional qualifications, the appraisal can be dismissed on the spot,  sight unseen.  
Rigorous Standards
U.S.P.A.P.
Audubon Elephant FolioAppraised by Dudley & Dudley
Legal Protection & Certainty
Late 18th-Early 19th century Chinese Export Porcelain Tureen  Appraised by Dudley & Dudley
Certified Appraisers:  Rigorous Standards Certification is available only to those appraisers who have met the most rigorous qualifications and passed the most advanced tests in the areas of ethics, methodology, fields of expertise and the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice (USPAP) as established by the Appraisal Standards Board of the Appraisal Foundation.  Each application is reviewed by the Membership Committee, composed of Certified Appraisers with many years of experience (Richard Dudley is a past multi-term Chair of the Membership Committee of the Appraiser's Association of America.) Certified Appraisers offer the greatest assurance to their clients of adherence to all legal requirements and the least exposure to any risk and the highest integrity. Always ask an appraiser if she or he is Certified.  You can tell when a Certified Appraiser signs their name by the letters A.A.A. after their signature.  Only appraisers who have passed rigorous certification exams and been reviewed by the Association have the legal right to place those letters after their name, just the way only doctors can place M.D. after their name. 
19th century Cloth Faced DollAppraised by Dudley & Dudley
U.S.P.A.P.: U.S.P.A.P.:  What is it and why does it matter? USPAP is the  Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice for the Personal Property Discipline, that is, those appraising fine art, antiques, household contents.   These standards were and are  established by the Appraisal Standards Board of the Appraisal Foundation. The Appraisal Foundation was established by the U.S. Congress as the source of appraisal standards and qualifications.   Both Patricia and Richard Dudley have taken the appropriate training and passed the required examinations to be able to create U.S.P.A.P. compliant appraisals.   Exactly as is the case with appraisals by Certified Appraisers, the validity of an appraisal, especially if it is challenged legally, is contingent on U.S.P.A.P. compliance.   ALWAYS ASK AN APPRAISER: DO YOU HAVE A CURRENT USPAP CERTIFICATE?
Amish Quilt Appraised byDudley & Dudley
Expert Testimony
Our Services: Unlike some appraisers, and because of our training, years of experience and the depth of our professional qualifications, we are a one-stop, full service appraisal services firm.  We can handle the entire range of your appraisal needs through their entire cycle.  Specializing In: Internal Revenue Service • Estate Valuation • Non-Cash Charitable Donation • Gift Tax Equitable Distribution • Divorce • Liquidation Insurance • Individual, Estate, Corporate and Institutional Collections • Damage and Loss • General Household • Fine Art Estate Planning • On Staff CPA on request Consultation and Brokerage For: • Individuals • Corporations • Public and Private Institutions • Collections Management • Expert Testimony The Association, based in New York City, conducts education and training programs for qualified professional members of the appraisal industry, including certification exams, the highest level of credentialization in the appraisal profession. The AAA is a member of the Appraisal Foundation which has been authorized by the United States Congress as the source of appraisal standards and appraiser qualifications.
Collections Management
Appraisal Days
Appraisals
Estate Consulting
Under Construction
18th century Chippendale Tea Caddy Appraised byDudley & Dudley
18th century Chippendale Card Table Appraised byDudley & Dudley
Expert TestimonyPatricia and Richard Dudley are experienced providers of expert testimony for the legal profession.   As part of their own continuining education program, both Dudleys recently attended an intensive two day seminar How to be an Effective Expert Witness focusing on Deposition and Trial.  The seminar, led by national expert James J. Mangraviti, Jr., Esq., was held at the headquarters of the Appraisers Association of America, Inc. in Manhattan February 26 and 27th, 2015. 
Dudley and Dudley has been in the forefront of collections management. Having spent many years appraising and organizing the fine arts, antiques and early scientific equipment of a major Eastern College, the Dudleys built a staff access only on line database of all the objects in the college's collection. Each object in this database has a full description, including photographs, conforming to the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice and Getty ID. Each item is searchable through many of its many characteristics. This is the level of knowledge, commitment and prove experience that Dudley and Dudley will bring to your collections management. We create searchable databases consistent with the needs of our clients.
Rare 20th Century Collectible Hobby Horse Appraised byDudley & Dudley
Since 1979 when Dudley and Dudley did their first Appraisal Day for the Lake George Museum of History, Art & Science, Richard and Patricia Dudley have held numerous Appraisal Days for both commecial clients and for charities. One of the most recent commercial Appraisal Days was an nearly all day event for Morgan Stanley private clients at the Buena Vista historic mansion and public museum in New Castle, Delaware.  Morgan Stanley private clients asked the Dudleys to examine and talk about a variety of items. A highlight was one cient who brought in two matching hand carved and hand painted decoys.  He was happy to learn they had a fair market value of $27,500!  Everybody had a great time. At left is a picture of Pat discussing one item.
Patricia Dudley working at the National Arts Club on Gramercy Park
Richard & Patricia Dudley
The National Arts Club on Gramercy Park, where the Dudleys are members and often work when in Manhattan.
Patricia Dudley moderating a conferenceat the A.A.A. National Conference
At the Hartford Antiques Show
Richard Dudley
Pat on the Personal FX Set
Patricia Dudley On Personal FX, The Collectibles Show
News
Period American Furniture
News release, March 2, 2015 Patricia and Richard Dudley of Dudley and Dudley Certified Personal Property Appraisers attended an intensive two day seminar How to be an Effective Expert Witness focusing on Deposition and Trial. The seminar, led by national expert James J. Mangraviti, Jr., Esq., was held at the headquarters of the Appraisers Association of America, Inc. in Manhattan February 26 and 27th.  The Dudleys have an office in the Shirt Factory Building, 19 Cooper St., Glens Falls. They are the only certified personal property appraisers between Woodstock and the Canadian border in eastern N.Y. They appraise a wide range including Fine Art, Antiques and Residential Contents. Expert witness testimony has been part of their business for some time. 
News & Articles From Dudley & Dudley
American Furniture- Advanced
Period American Furniture     Among the most highly sought after and valuable of all antiques are what are called "period" American furniture, that is, the craft made furniture pieces made in Britain's American colonies and in the early years of the newly formed United States.     Designed after styles popular in Great Britain and, for earlier and later periods, the Netherlands and France, they are divided into well recognized design periods. The traditional  names are from either the reigning monarchs or from the leading furniture designers up through Victorian:  Pilgrim Century 1620-1720; William and Mary 1690-1720, Jacobean as a precursorQueen Anne 1720-1760 (1810 for some late forms)Chippendale 1755-1800 (1815 for some late forms)Federal 1790-1810 (Hepplewhite and Sheraton)Empire 1810-1840Victorian 1840-1900Arts and Crafts 1890-1920Art Deco 1925-1940International Style 1925-1940Art Moderne 1930-1940    Scholars, museums, leading auction houses and leading dealers now use terms for these furniture periods delineated by the great artistic epochs.  They are:  Mannerism 1620-1700                 Baroque 1690-1740Rococo 1750-1790Neoclassical 1790-1820Classical 1810-1840Rococo Revival 1840-1900Renaissance Revival 1850-1900Aesthetic Movement 1880-1910Art Nouveau 1880-1910Arts and Crafts 1880-1920Art Deco 1925-1940International Style (also International Modernism) 1925-1940Art Moderne 1930-1940    The early 19th century Empire style, now formally “Classical,”  followed trends in France during the Executive Directory and Napoleonic eras, with occasional pieces in the Louis XVI style.        Dutch forms of the above early periods  were and are found in the former colony of New Netherlands, now spanning modern New York, New Jersey and parts of Delaware.  County furniture in traditional German designs dominate in Pennsylvania while in urban areas such as Philadelphia furniture reflects the highest style forms in Great Britain.  In addition, French Provincial furniture is also found in the former colony of New France, now modern Quebec Province of Canada. These forms are  often found in northern  border areas of Maine, New Hampshire and New York.  These pieces are so highly esteemed for several reasons: Design.  These furniture pieces are often masterpieces of design in the Baroque, Rococo and various Neoclassical styles.  They also highly functional and comfortable, as befits furniture handmade for specific owners.Craftsmanship.  The craft standards of the late 17th, 18th and early 19th centuries have never really been equaled except for the Arts and Crafts Movement and contemporary Studio Furniture, Sam Maloof of Alta Loma, California being an example .  All craftsmen during the  17th, 18th and early 19th centuries learned their trade in a lengthy apprenticeship period lasting at least seven years-- the equivalent to a modern  law or medical degree. Rarity.  Because these pieces are made one at a time for specific owners who commissioned their construction, instead of being mass produced in a factory, these pieces are not common.Cultural Legacy.  These pieces are also valued because they are memorable links to the first generations of Americans who created this nation.Dudley & Dudley-- Richard and Patricia Dudley-- as nationally recognized Certified Personal Property Appraisers specialize in  appraising period American furniture. Because of their very high level of expertise, scholarship and years of experience, and the esteem and recognition with which they are regarded within the appraisal profession, Richard and Patricia Dudley were asked to write the Certification Exam for American Furniture and Decorative Arts in 2009 by the Appraisers Association of America.  All other appraisers wishing to be certified in this field have to take this exam.  Obviously, since they wrote the exam, they were inherently certified in this field.    They have  also brokered important period pieces to major national museums including the Smithsonian, the Henry Ford Museum, the New York State Museum as well as worked for universities, banks, insurance companies, the legal profession and leading private collections.  
American Furniture By Richard E. Dudley, A.A.A. Patricia J. Dudley, A.A.A.     For the widest spread interest, American furniture lies at the core of  American material culture and what everyone calls “Americana.” Furniture is something everyone can use, the best or the most resonate is seen as sculpture.  Historically, furniture resonates with the largest number of people. “Washington sat in a chair like this.” “Jefferson wrote the Declaration Of Independence on this portable desk.” A William and Mary tuck a way table used by General Schuyler as a field table in the Revolution. All those sideboards, chests of drawers in the early 19th century that look like Roman or Greek temples tell of the proud, broad shouldered, confident Americans who saw their Republic as an heir to and perhaps even surpassing, the Greek and Roman Empires.     The appraiser should know that all antique American furniture is best understood as falling into Periods.  These periods roughly correspond to the major changes in artistic styles that swept over the Western world since the Middle Ages. Period Furniture refers to antique furniture made before 1830, before the widespread introduction of power machinery that turned furniture making into an assembly line process. Furniture a 100 years old or older is antique, 1911, as of this writing, less old collectible.     When the first European settlers arrived here for permanent settlement, Jamestown 1607, Plymouth 1621, the furniture styles they brought with them were a careful amalgam of lingering Medievalism, Renaissance Classicism and  emerging Mannerism that had started in Italy and quickly swept up through northern Europe. The great court cupboards of Massachusetts are the most dramatic example. Wallace Nutting called this “Pilgrim Century.” We  call it “The Seventeenth Century.” The great break with past scholarship in this period was the 1982 exhibition and three volume, must-have catalogue New England Begins: The Seventeenth Century, Jonathan Fairbanks, Robert F. Trent, where the case is laid out for Mannerism.     The second great style to roll up on our shores was the Baroque, an art style that started in the Counter-Reformation, quickly shorn of religious connotations by northern European Protestants, but keeping the emphasis on emotion, dynamic movement, variety, contrast between thick and thin curves. We call this the William and Mary Period (1690-1730) and the Queen Anne (1725-1760). Think of case pieces with big ball feet on thin necks, chairs, tables with baluster turnings and sharp transitions to thin necks, reel turnings, lots of contrast. Some consider the Queen Ann period to be Late Baroque.     The third great style was the Rococo best known in America for it’s greatest English designer Thomas Chippendale.  A combination of Rocaille  and Coquille (Rockwork and Shellwork), it was light and playful using naturalistic motifs, asymmetry, large C and S scrolls. Chippendale’s The Gentleman and Cabinet-Maker’s Director published in 1754 immediately came to America and defined a style for a generation. For this stretch of influence: Chippendale (1750-1790). One should know that a small minority of scholars consider Rococo to be the last phase of Baroque. This has not been accepted in the furniture community as a whole and with good reason. The underlying sentiment, or zeitgeist, of Rococo is markedly different than Baroque.     The Fourth style is a large break, The Federal Period 1790-1820. Some  continue it until 1835.  Defined by Neoclassicism, it was all thin, clean, rectilinear, symmetrical without carving as a main definition. For the first time since the William and Mary there was an emphasis on the play of veneers on large surfaces although here on uncarved flat surfaces. Think of Palladianism. This was a direct reaction to the Baroque and Rococo. The styles of English furniture designers George Hepplewhite and Thomas Sheraton dominated American furniture consumerism.     The final period of the period styles is the Empire, also called the Greco-Roman. Dominating completely from 1805 to 1840, this was, as noted above, the furniture of large-shouldered optimism, admiration of ancient Greece and Rome. As the style developed it became ever more massive and powerful. Columns from Doric temples held up sideboards and were often on Roman or Etruscan lions paw feet.  Carved dolphins held up sofas. Finally with the introduction of the power bandsaw in 1830 the last phase ended with the Cyma-Scroll School produced by high speed in factories, what some auctioneers now call “Elephant Trunk” furniture.      One should always be aware that rural vernacular forms often continued later than the periods mentioned above. These examples are either called retardadaire or examples of “persistence of form.”  A county Queen Ann chair of 1810, nearly 100 years after the lady died, is an example.     “Terminus post quem non,” a terminus after which one cannot go, is the rule for furniture appraisers. That terminus is the point of last stylistic detail. For example, if a piece has an Empire detail, however small or obscure, on a Queen Ann form, the piece is Empire period. If a county stepback cupboard has great 18th century form with old color but is primarily put together with wire nails it has to be, at least, late 19th century since wire nails were introduced in 1851.     There was a collapse or disappearance of one uniting style in 1840 which brought in the Victorian era with it’s endless Revivals:  Elizabethan Revival (1840-1880), Louis XV and XVI Revivals, Renaissance Revival (1850-1900), Rococo Revival,(1840-1900) Empire Revival (1880-1900).  Aesthetic Movement furniture (1880-1910) and design as well as Japanese Revival or  Japonisme, Moorish Revival of the 1880’s, Colonial Revival spurred on by the 1876 Centennial, and the very short lived Art Nouveau added fresh influence.            The break that came was sharp and permanent. We call it Arts and Crafts (1880-1920). The public calls it Mission Oak. Starting in mid-19th century England, Arts and Crafts was a rejection of historicism and everything Victorian. Very, very little carving, usually none at all, straight, clean severe lines, emphasis on function. Arts and Crafts was a dominate force from high brow to low brow 1900 through 1920 and swept in the Modern Age. Chief cabinetmakers were Gustave Stickley, Syracuse, N.Y, his brothers L. & JG. Stickley, Fayetteville, N.Y. and younger brothers George and Albert, the latter who used “Quaint Furniture” and Stickley Bros. Co. of Grand Rapids.” In East Aurora, N.Y. were the Roycrofters led by Elbert Hubbard and in Grand Rapids and Holland, Michigan, the Charles P. Limbert Co.  Life-Time Furniture of the Grand Rapids Bookcase and Chair Co. were latecomers in 1910.     For Americans, the Jazz Age was defined by Art Deco (1925-1940) followed by Art Moderne (1930-1940). (Like Chippendale, they called their furniture “modern.” The terms came later.) Designers to know: Donald Deskey (1894 – 1989), Gilbert Rohde (1886-1958), Norman Bel Geddes (1893-1958), Kem Weber (1889-1963), Paul Frankl (1886-1958), Wolfgang Hoffmann, [1900 - 1969] son of the co-founder of the Wiener Werkstatte ; the firm Schmieg, Hungate & Kotzian which also produced a wide variety including revival styles all strong in contemporary auctions and showroom.  Uniting all of this all the way back to Arts and Crafts was the International Style or International Modernism (1925-1970) whose credo was American architect Louis Sullivan’s  dictum of 1896, “Form follows function.” For the latter think the incomparable refugees from Hitler, Ludwig  Mies Van De Rohe (1886-1969) and Marcel Breuer (1902-1981). Post World War II.     Furniture design and manufacture followed two different routes: studio furniture and mass-produced modernist design.     The latter evolved out of Art Deco and Art Moderne with a strong nod to the Internationalists. In 1940 the Museum of Modern Art caught the drift perfectly with their “Organic Design in Home Furnishings” competition. The designers that emerged defined the 40’s, 50’s and well into the 60’s. The term was Biomorphism.  What better could personify that but Eero Saarinen’s (1910-1961) 1948 Womb Chair ? Or the molded plastic and plywood of Ray and Charles Eames (1907-1978) in dozens of different designs? Or the multiple designs that flowed from Marcel Breuer’s 1935-1936 Lounge Chair ?     In her must-read book for the appraiser, Cara Greenberg in Mid-Century Modern says of this Lounge Chair: “Early organic: Breuer’s laminated plywood lounge, manufactured by the English firm Isokon, was a translation from aluminum and one of the first pieces to suggest the flow of living tissue.”     Other American designers of this period that the appraiser should be familiar with are Isamu Noguchi (1904-1988) whose work is very hot, icon George Nelson (1908-1986), Harry Bertoia ( 1915-1978), Vladimir Kagan (1927--), Edward Wormley (1907-1995), Seattle architect Wendell Lovett (1922--) , Paul McCobb (1917-1969) who was influenced heavily by Danish Modern which in turn was influenced heavily by American Shaker furniture.     Studio Furniture or Art Furniture was the other path furniture design took after World War II. This has a very strong market deserving serious attention from the appraiser.  Each piece manufactured or created is the product of a single craftsman from conception through final completion. As a website dedicated to this movement, http://www.furnituresociety.org, notes:     Studio furniture makers use a variety of machinery and handtools, and often assistants or specialists; but they tend to work in smaller spaces set up to maximize the effective work of the individual, and their level of production remains relatively low, occupying the middle and upper layers of the furniture market. Their spaces, approaches to work, and final products lack the scale of a manufactory. The term studio furniture thus highlights the independent professionalism of the furniture makers and their custom production, which is characteristic of other aspects of todays decentralized (yet networked) social and economic culture.     The marketing of studio furniture is also unique to our time. Normal retail outlets for furniture or design have little relevance to the field of studio furniture, where work is distributed through peculiarly dynamic sales networks. Works are showcased and sold through craft or art galleries or at craft or furniture shows, displayed at studio open houses where a local group of art supporters might see them, commissioned by a client, or purchased directly from the makers shop. Some makers sell through a number of these venues simultaneously, but there is considerable variation based on region, gallery or show presence, and makers connections. Often studio furniture tends to be concentrated in the region of its creator, but some also becomes part of an extra-local art collection, in private residences or museums. The marketing is thus distinct from the mainstream furniture trade, and closer to that of small local businesses and the fine art world. The term studio suggests the importance of the individual maker and his or her artistic aura in the marketplace.”     Leading practioners are Sam Maloof (1916--), Wendell Castle (1932--), James Krenov (1920--), Tommy Simpson (1939--), Kristina Madsen, Clifton Monteith and Kurt G. Holsaple. The specialist appraiser can find 50 more. Sam Maloof is the oldest and longest running studio furniture designer. His works are in a large number of museums and appear at auction. A new single rocker is $25,000 and there is now a waiting period of several years.     Wendell Castel is considered by many to be the founding creator of the Studio Furniture movement. His furniture is found at many high-end auctions. A “wall sculpture/table” estimated at $3,000 -$4,000 at Rago’s in 2006 went for $51,000.  18th century furniture dealers should be so lucky . A more common form of Castle’s furniture, a swooping “Walnut Crescent rocking chair” brought $18,000 at the same sale.      James Krenov founded the fine wood working program at the College of the Redwoods in California. He taught there until 2002. His works fall in the range above.        Kurt G. Holsaple, Hudson Valley sculptor, furniture designer and maker, apprenticed with Wendell Castle from 1975-1977. Diningroom sets and furniture are all in the five figure range but seldom found outside collections.     Not all Studio Furniture reaches great monetary heights. A Tommy Simpson “faux-finish, black and white marbleized wood bench (one of a pair) created in 2000 for the Pilobolus Dance Theater went at Winter Associates, Connecticut, or $476 against a $350 to $700 estimate in 2006. These all demonstrate the challenge to the appraiser in this field.